FAA To Block Erroneous ADS-B Signals

 About 20% of all ADS-B out systems are installed incorrectly. To help owners identify incorrect installations, starting January 2, 2018, the FAA filter these aircraft from the system. The filter will catch ADS–B equipped aircraft that are broadcasting erroneous or improper information that could affect the safe provision of air traffic services. Any aircraft subject to the filter will not have its ADS–B information sent to an ATC facility nor will the aircraft be a client for Traffic Information Services (TIS-B). “Affected aircraft will continue to receive ATC services within radar coverage using secondary radar information.

For those aircraft transmitting erroneous information, the Public ADS-B Performance Report (PAPR) will search for the flight ID matching the entered U.S. registry number if it cannot locate the corresponding mode-S code. The FAA could also use the filter for aircraft that are discovered to have other issues, including transmitting non-compliant codes, that could reasonably result in erroneous ADS–B information affecting the safety of ATC services.

The FAA intends when possible, to provide individual notice to owners/operators before implementing the filter. This notification would describe the reason for applying the filter and steps that must be taken before an aircraft can be removed from the filter. If an aircraft owner/operator does not respond to an FAA notice of finding regarding an ADS–B avionics issue, the agency might subject that aircraft to the filter without further notice. Owners and operators can identify the ICAO address filtering status of their aircraft by requesting a Public ADS-B Performance Reports (PAPR). This is available for aircraft operations within FAA ADS-B coverage areas. To use the tool, aircraft owners or operators simply input some basic information about a particular aircraft, including tail number, ADS-B equipment make/model and flight date. The FAA then sends the PAPR to the user’s provided email address, typically within 30 minutes. Users should understand that operations close to ground level or near the fringes of ADS-B coverage areas might not yield accurate results.

If the report includes an error message, the aircraft owner or operator can use that information to have the problem rectified by their avionics shop.

All aircraft operators with ADS-B equipment installed in their aircraft should take a few moments to use the PAPR tool. It’s critical that aircraft owners and operators verify the health of their ADS-B equipment and ensure the FAA is receiving accurate data. To request a PAPR, go to https://adsbperformance.faa.gov/PAPRRequest.aspx

Basic Med Course at Mayo Clinic

Now available to general aviation pilots is the new online Mayo Clinic BasicMed Course, a free program for pilots pursuing medical qualification through FAA BasicMed.

The course is separated into six modules, including conducting medical self-assessments, warning signs of serious medical conditions, mitigating medical risks, awareness of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, the importance of regular medical examinations, and details regarding requirements on pilots if a medical deficiency exists.

The course, which takes approximately 90 minutes to complete, is followed by an online examination. It is accessible at BasicMed.Mayo.edu. The link is also on the FAA’s BasicMed website.

Would You Have Flown the ODP?

October 24, 2004,a little after midnight, a Learjet crew prepared to depart from Brown Field (KSDM) near San Diego, CA, enroute to Albuquerque, NM (KABQ). Brown tower closed at 2000 and the crew was unable to receive Socal Departure from the ground.  The crew elected to depart VFR under a 2000 foot overcast and pick up their IFR clearance in the air. The flight crew had a cellular telephone and a satellite telephone on board the airplane, so they could have received a clearance from Flight Service by calling (888) 766-8267.

During the departure briefing and crew discussion, the captain stated that he wanted to depart from runway 8 to avoid flying over the city of San Diego. He also stated that a runway 8 departure would place the flight on a heading straight toward ABQ, and the copilot agreed this reasoning. They did not follow the Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP), shown above, and were apparently unaware of the San Ysidro Mountains to the East.

A review of radar data revealed that the airplane climbed to about 2,300 feet mean sea level (MSL) and its flight track remained approximately straight out from the departure runway. The crew stayed below the overcast, remaining VFR, while they waited for their IFR clearance. The Socal controller identified the Learjet and instructed the flight crew to turn to a heading of 020°, maintain VFR, and expect an IFR clearance above 5,000 feet MSL. The captain acknowledged the heading instructions, but that was the last communication from the Learjet crew, having struck the mountains.

A review of radar data revealed that, at the time the controller issued the instructions, the flight was about 3.5 nautical miles west of the mountains, and the heading issued by the controller resulted in a flight track that continued toward the mountains.

There’s lots of blame to go around, including the Socal controller.

Although the flight crew is responsible for maintaining terrain clearance while operating under VFR, FAA Order 7110.65P, chapter 4-2-8, states that, when an aircraft is operating under VFR below minimum IFR altitudes and the flight crew requests an IFR clearance, the controller should ask the crew members if they would be able to maintain terrain and obstruction clearance during the climb to the minimum IFR altitude. The order also states that, if the controller provides an instruction (such as turn to a heading of 020º), the responsibility for terrain clearance is transferred to the FAA. The order advises controllers not to “assign (or imply) specific course guidance that will (or could) be in effect below the minimum vectoring altitude (MVA) or minimum enroute altitude (MEA).”

During a post accident interview, the controller stated he was unaware of this responsibility.

The controller had elected not to inform the crew of the rising terrain, in spite of receiving a low altitude alert. His reasoning was that “it was the flight crew’s responsibility to avoid terrain when operating under VFR”.  The controller was not injured.

Please be safe when you fly and make great, professional decisions!!

CLICK HERE to read the full report.

Do you need an ADS-B Solution?

On January 1st, 2020 I hope you will have had ADS-B OUT installed in your aircraft. If not, please tell me that your airplane is not parked within a Class B 30 mile Veil, or inside Class C airspace.

Let’s review the airspace that you’ll need ADS-B Out installed on or after Jan 1st 2020.

That’s right, it’s the same airspace which currently requires you to have a Mode C transponder.

The lines of those waiting to have ADS-B installed will be pretty long; littered with those who waited until the last minute. So, if you wait, your flying days may be curtailed for months. That would be sad, indeed!

If you’re a member of the ADS-B Procrastinator Club, you’re in good company, because in that “club” are lots of biz jet operators. Understandably so, because their ADS-B Out installation will cost a lot more than yours will cost. But, when we come closer to the deadline and the biz jets line up at the Avionics shop, who do you think the Avionics shops will favor? That’s right, the big airplanes that will result in a bigger shop payment.

I’m not gonna’ lie. The ADS-B OUT boxes that are certified for your Mooney are not cheap.

In addition, it must provide a WAAS GPS position and altitude, either on its own or by getting position and altitude from your panel mounted WAAS GPS.

The best solution would be a one box wonder that replaces your old transponder and has its own internal WAAS GPS. Further, it would be best if it included ADS-B IN and oh yeah, it should fit in same “rack” in which your old transponder is resting! One more thing, it should be on the low side of the high dollar mountain.

Garmin has developed the answer to your prayers. It’s the wonderful GTX 335. It will usually fit in your old transponder’s rack and includes everything you need to be ADS-B OUT legal. If you’re replacing an old friend like a King 76A you’ll be pleased to enter the modern era of push button, large display digital transponders. The GTX 335 brings 1090 MHz output, which enables your aircraft to operate at any altitude, in any airspace anywhere around the globe. It combines a Mode S Extended Squitter (ES) transponder and optional WAAS/GPS position source in a single unit. Its useful display features include flight time, count-up and countdown timers, plus the current pressure altitude readout.

The best part? You’ll pay just $3,500 for a box that is well worth every penny. You’ll get the GTX 335 with GPS transponder and the GA 35 WAAS antenna. Because it can fit in your current rack, the installation costs will be reasonably low.

It’s got WAAS Inside

If you’re willing to go with a non-Garmin box, consider Appareo’s Stratus ESG. The Stratus ESG is just $3,000 and matches the capabilities of the Garmin 335GTX , plus it solves the 2020 compliance issue.  But wait, there’s more. The Stratus ESGi adds ADS-B IN capability by bolting a Stratus 2i to the back of the ESGi. What’s a Stratus 2i? We all know what a Stratus 2S is and many of us own and love them. The Stratus 2i is only available in this package.  It was designed to stay plugged into the transponder (tucked behind the panel), benefiting from external antenna signals and aircraft power. If you already own a portable Stratus 2S receiver, there’s an interface kit available to connect your receiver with the Stratus ESG transponder.

If you’re willing to gamble, here’s a deal for you. uAvionix has a low cost ADSB-Out solution in the works. It’s called the SkyBeacon and it’s currently only for Experimental. However, the owners have assured me that it will be ready for Certified Aircraft in 2018. Their first priority is to roll out certification for the most popular aircraft, like the Cessna 172.

Eventually, uAvionix plans to get to the Mooney. SkyBeacon uses the existing mounting location, breaker, and wiring. No airframe modifications or additional antennas are required. It’s designed to mount in minutes and uAvionix is hoping that the certified model will cost around $1,500.

Do You Need to Call Flight Service?

To Be Compliant with FAR 91.103, are Pilots Required to Call Flight Service?

More and more pilots are using Electronic Flight Bags (“EFBs”), such as ForeFlight, WingX, Garmin Pilot and FlyQ. That means that fewer and fewer pilots are calling Flight Service for a phone briefing.  Do you know if pilots are required to call Flight Service to be compliant with FAR 91.103?

2015 Case

In 2015, a pilot obtained a briefing using ForeFlight, but unfortunately did not set up DUATS in ForeFlight, so a record of the briefing was not emailed to him.  In that briefing, ForeFlight depicted two Vice Presidential TFRs on its screen (which the pilot avoided). A third Vice Presidential TFR was not depicted on ForeFlight, and the pilot violated that TFR.

  • 91.103

In addition to citing the pilot for flying through the TFR, the FAA also cited the pilot for failure to obtain a proper pre-flight briefing. That’s because, according to §91.103, when it comes to Preflight Action, “Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. This information must include—

  • For a flight under IFR or a flight not in the vicinity of an airport, weather reports and forecasts, fuel requirements, alternatives available if the planned flight cannot be completed, and any known traffic delays of which the pilot in command has been advised by ATC.

 The Affirmative Defense of “Reasonable Reliance”

The FAA had routinely taken the position that, if a pilot got a briefing from Flight Service, and if Flight Service had failed to brief the pilot about a particular TFR, then the FAA would not pursue an enforcement action for violating that TFR.  This doctrine is known as the affirmative defense of “reasonable reliance”.   In this case, the FAA refused to dismiss the action on the defense of reasonable reliance since the pilot got his briefing from ForeFlight instead of Flight Service.  Ironically, the FAA stopped short of calling ForeFlight “unofficial” or “unreliable”.

The case went to court in 2015 and the FAA settled its  enforcement case against the pilot, wherein he was required to accomplish a few hours of remedial training.  No violation went on his record.

After the ruling, there were more questions, so the pilot’s attorney, Scott Williams, a California-based panel attorney for AOPA’s Pilot Protection Services, submitted a request for an Opinion Letter from the FAA’s Office of Chief Counsel as to 91.103.  Mr. Williams’ letter specifically asked three questions:

  1. Is a preflight briefing in violation of FAR 91.103 if it did not include a phone call to Flight Service, 1-800-WX-BRIEF?
  2. If a pilot obtains a preflight briefing from the FAA’s [TFR] website, it contains a disclaimer at the bottom of the page: “For the Latest Information Call Your Local Flight Service Station at 1-800-WX-BRIEF”. Is that disclaimer advisory or regulatory?
  3. Does the FAA consider a briefing using only an electronic flight bag to be in violation of 91.103?

It took the FAA 11 months to come up with an answer, but they finally responded with the following:

  1.  “A PIC’s failure to contact LMFS prior to a flight would not be a per se violation of FAR 91.103”
  2. “The statement at the bottom of the FAA’s TFR website (to call your local FSS) is advisory
  3. “A PIC’s reliance on only an EFB would not be a per se violation of FAR 91.103”

Should Pilots Still Call Flight Service?

Pilots should always obtain a weather and airspace briefing from a reliable source.  Most EFBs are fine, but merely looking at a tablet or iPad isn’t good enough.  If your EFB briefing missed a TFR and you managed to fly right through it, don’t expect the FAA to believe that you saw what wasn’t there.

To be safe, pilots should use EFBs that have a feature that will email you a copy of the full briefing.  Keep those emails for at least 6 months.  If that doesn’t work for you, make the phone call to Flight Service, which puts your briefing on the record.

Is Your Aircraft Ready to Fly

You are directly responsible for, and are the final authority as to the operation of your Aircraft. There’s a lot to consider, so here goes:

(FAR 91.413) The PIC must make sure that his/her aircraft is airworthy. That includes checking the following:

Type Interval Per
AD Inspections Per the AD. (Expires the last day of the 12th month) 39.7
Annual Inspection 12 Months 91.409
100 Hour Inspection* Every 100 hours 91.409
Transponder 24 Months. (Expires the last day of the 24th month) 91.413
Static System, if flying IFR 24 Months. (Expires the last day of the 24th month) 91.411
ELT Operational 12 Months 91.207
ELT Battery** Per Battery or 1 hour of use 91.207
GPS Data Base IFR  
VOR IFR, every 30 days 91.171

*A 100 hour inspection is required if:

  • The aircraft is carrying people or property for compensation – or – a person is giving flight instruction and providing the aircraft
  • If you forget and have the aircraft inspection at 110 hours, the next 100 hour inspection is due 100 hours from when it was originally due. (You can’t roll it forward like an Annual Inspection due date).


An ELT must be attached to the airplane and the ELT batteries must be checked annually for corrosion.

Batteries must be replaced:

  • If the transmitter has been in use for more than 1 cumulative hour, or
  • When 50% of their useful life has expired. If they are rechargeable batteries, when 50% of their charge life has expired.

In plain English, all of the batteries must have the same expiration date and they must be replaced upon reaching 50% of their useful life, based on the expiration date on each battery cell.

Required Equipment, VFR DAY (A TOMATO FLAMES)

  • AIRSPEED Indicator.
  • TACHOMETER, (for each engine).
  • OIL PRESSURE gauge, (for each engine using a pressure system).
  • MANIFOLD PRESSURE gauge for each altitude engine. That’s a turbocharged reciprocating engine. Its manifold pressure is boosted and therefore, you must be able to monitor that pressure).
  • TEMP gauge for each liquid cooled engine.
  •   OIL TEMP gauge for each air cooled engine.
  •   FUEL gauge for each tank.
  •   LANDING GEAR POSITION indicator, (if the aircraft has retractable gear).
  •   ANTI-COLLISION LIGHT system, if the aircraft was certified after March 11, 1996. (In the event of an Anti-collision light failure, you may continue to a location where repairs or replacement can be made).
  •  ELT (FAR 91.207).
  •  SEAT BELTS. If the aircraft was certified after July, 1978, you’ll also need Shoulder Straps.

Additional Equipment Required for VFR NIGHT (FLAPS)

  • FUSES; 3 of each kind required, and accessible in flight. You only need fuses if your aircraft is equipped with them. For example, if your airplane has circuit breakers, there’s no need to have fuses.
  • LANDING LIGHT, but only if you are flying for hire.
  • ANTI-COLLISION LIGHT SYSTEM, if certified after August 11, 1971.
    • In the event of failure, you may continue to a location where repairs or replacement can be made.
  • POSITION LIGHTS, on from sunset to sunrise. (Ref. FAR 91.209).
  • SOURCE OF ELECTRICAL POWER (alternator or generator).

Required Equipment for an IFR Flight, (In addition to the equipment required for VFR):   (FAR 91.205)


  • DIRECTIONAL GYRO (DG) or equivalent.
  • RATE OF TURN indicator or an additional attitude indicator
  • GENERATOR or Alternator with adequate capacity.
  • SKID / SLIP Indicator
  • CLOCK installed in the aircraft, displaying hours, minutes and seconds.
  • RADIOS & NAV. Two-way radios and NAV equipment appropriate to the ground facilities to be used.

 You can take off with inoperative instruments or equipment that are not required by FAR 91, as long as the “bad” instrument or equipment is removed or placarded “INOPERATIVE”, and a pilot or mechanic determines that the loss of that instrument or equipment is not a hazard. The bad instrument/component must be unpowered.

Minimum Equipment List (MEL) (FAR 91.213)

Your aircraft MEL can be authorized by the airworthiness certificate holder to allow a takeoff with inoperative instruments or equipment. It can never take away from the equipment required for VFR day, VFR night, or IFR (day or night).

  • The MEL must be approved by the FAA.
  • The MEL and the FAA’s letter of approval must be carried in the aircraft.

 Required Documents in the Aircraft (FAR 91.203, 91.9)

  • A irworthiness certificate.
  • R egistration certificate.
  • R adio license, (SOME commercial operations & SOMETIMES, if you are leaving the USA or communicating with a foreign controller). NOTE: It is not enforced  in Mexico, they never mention a “Radio License”.
  • O perating limitations (The Owner’s Manual).
  • W eight and balance data.

A Post Maintenance Test Flight

How many times have you had your aircraft in the shop for some repairs or even its annual inspection, and then you just taxied it back to your hangar; never flying it until your next trip? I hope you’ll think about a post maintenance test flight next time your baby has some work done on it. At the very least, you’ll need to have a post maintenance test flight (without passengers) whenever your aircraft has been maintained, rebuilt, or altered in a manner that may have appreciably changed its flight characteristics or substantially affected its operation in flight.

Perhaps your mechanic may have counseled you to make such a test flight, or maybe not. If not, that’s because the FARs don’t require your mechanic to offer such counseling. The FAA looks to the owner to make that call.

Certain kinds of maintenance, such as horsepower increases, speed mods, etc., require a post maintenance test flight. That’s because these alterations are intended to appreciably change the flight characteristics of an aircraft, or substantially affect its operation in flight.

If you have an engine teardown or prop overhaul, do you need to test fly your aircraft? Absolutely and for good reason! There are many cases where a post engine teardown or a post engine overhaul flight has resulted in serious engine problems. In addition, the first flight after maintenance is by far the most likely time for an equipment failure that could affect flight safety.

To be safe, a test flight in day VFR conditions should be flown every time an aircraft is returned to service after maintenance. Fly this flight as if you were a test pilot, in a safe environment close to an airport, just in case something goes “south”.

A Mooney owner flew his aircraft to Nassau and while there, he had a prop strike. You know what that means, don’t you? That’s right, the Mooney went into the shop in Nassau and the insurance company issued a $25,000 check to the shop to cover the engine teardown, prop replacement and minor airframe repairs.

Now that the shop had their money, they were in no hurry to fix the airplane, so things dragged on and on – for a full year. Finally, they  shipped the engine to Florida for the teardown, ordered a replacement prop, performed some airframe repairs, reinstalled the engine, and installed the prop.

When the owner finally received word that his Mooney was ready, you can imagine his excitement. He flew commercially to the Bahamas, jumped into his Mooney and took off for the 160nm flight to Ft Lauderdale.

Just a few minutes after takeoff, the fuel pressure had dropped far below normal, the engine was unable to give more than 50% power, the prop pitch was uncontrollable, and the landing gear would not fully retract.









I am not sure what the owner was thinking, but instead of returning to Nassau, the pilot continued his flight over the Atlantic Ocean and managed to land at Ft Lauderdale. Wow! Just wow! If it had been me, the pucker factor would have been so intense that doctors would have needed to surgically remove the seat cushion from my rear end.

The Nassau maintenance was so bad that the Mooney remained in the Ft Lauderdale maintenance facility for the better part of another year. During that time, the shop performed extensive repairs to the airframe, tore the engine down – again, replaced the prop governor, carburetor, fuel pump, and fuel selector valve.

Next time you have maintenance performed on your aircraft, don’t argue about a test flight  . . Just do it!!