Basic Med Course at Mayo Clinic

Now available to general aviation pilots is the new online Mayo Clinic BasicMed Course, a free program for pilots pursuing medical qualification through FAA BasicMed.

The course is separated into six modules, including conducting medical self-assessments, warning signs of serious medical conditions, mitigating medical risks, awareness of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, the importance of regular medical examinations, and details regarding requirements on pilots if a medical deficiency exists.

The course, which takes approximately 90 minutes to complete, is followed by an online examination. It is accessible at The link is also on the FAA’s BasicMed website.


Would You Have Flown the ODP?

October 24, 2004,a little after midnight, a Learjet crew prepared to depart from Brown Field (KSDM) near San Diego, CA, enroute to Albuquerque, NM (KABQ). Brown tower closed at 2000 and the crew was unable to receive Socal Departure from the ground.  The crew elected to depart VFR under a 2000 foot overcast and pick up their IFR clearance in the air. The flight crew had a cellular telephone and a satellite telephone on board the airplane, so they could have received a clearance from Flight Service by calling (888) 766-8267.

During the departure briefing and crew discussion, the captain stated that he wanted to depart from runway 8 to avoid flying over the city of San Diego. He also stated that a runway 8 departure would place the flight on a heading straight toward ABQ, and the copilot agreed this reasoning. They did not follow the Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP), shown above, and were apparently unaware of the San Ysidro Mountains to the East.

A review of radar data revealed that the airplane climbed to about 2,300 feet mean sea level (MSL) and its flight track remained approximately straight out from the departure runway. The crew stayed below the overcast, remaining VFR, while they waited for their IFR clearance. The Socal controller identified the Learjet and instructed the flight crew to turn to a heading of 020°, maintain VFR, and expect an IFR clearance above 5,000 feet MSL. The captain acknowledged the heading instructions, but that was the last communication from the Learjet crew, having struck the mountains.

A review of radar data revealed that, at the time the controller issued the instructions, the flight was about 3.5 nautical miles west of the mountains, and the heading issued by the controller resulted in a flight track that continued toward the mountains.

There’s lots of blame to go around, including the Socal controller.

Although the flight crew is responsible for maintaining terrain clearance while operating under VFR, FAA Order 7110.65P, chapter 4-2-8, states that, when an aircraft is operating under VFR below minimum IFR altitudes and the flight crew requests an IFR clearance, the controller should ask the crew members if they would be able to maintain terrain and obstruction clearance during the climb to the minimum IFR altitude. The order also states that, if the controller provides an instruction (such as turn to a heading of 020º), the responsibility for terrain clearance is transferred to the FAA. The order advises controllers not to “assign (or imply) specific course guidance that will (or could) be in effect below the minimum vectoring altitude (MVA) or minimum enroute altitude (MEA).”

During a post accident interview, the controller stated he was unaware of this responsibility.

The controller had elected not to inform the crew of the rising terrain, in spite of receiving a low altitude alert. His reasoning was that “it was the flight crew’s responsibility to avoid terrain when operating under VFR”.  The controller was not injured.

Please be safe when you fly and make great, professional decisions!!

CLICK HERE to read the full report.

Do you need an ADS-B Solution?

On January 1st, 2020 I hope you will have had ADS-B OUT installed in your aircraft. If not, please tell me that your airplane is not parked within a Class B 30 mile Veil, or inside Class C airspace.

Let’s review the airspace that you’ll need ADS-B Out installed on or after Jan 1st 2020.

That’s right, it’s the same airspace which currently requires you to have a Mode C transponder.

The lines of those waiting to have ADS-B installed will be pretty long; littered with those who waited until the last minute. So, if you wait, your flying days may be curtailed for months. That would be sad, indeed!

If you’re a member of the ADS-B Procrastinator Club, you’re in good company, because in that “club” are lots of biz jet operators. Understandably so, because their ADS-B Out installation will cost a lot more than yours will cost. But, when we come closer to the deadline and the biz jets line up at the Avionics shop, who do you think the Avionics shops will favor? That’s right, the big airplanes that will result in a bigger shop payment.

I’m not gonna’ lie. The ADS-B OUT boxes that are certified for your Mooney are not cheap.

In addition, it must provide a WAAS GPS position and altitude, either on its own or by getting position and altitude from your panel mounted WAAS GPS.

The best solution would be a one box wonder that replaces your old transponder and has its own internal WAAS GPS. Further, it would be best if it included ADS-B IN and oh yeah, it should fit in same “rack” in which your old transponder is resting! One more thing, it should be on the low side of the high dollar mountain.

Garmin has developed the answer to your prayers. It’s the wonderful GTX 335. It will usually fit in your old transponder’s rack and includes everything you need to be ADS-B OUT legal. If you’re replacing an old friend like a King 76A you’ll be pleased to enter the modern era of push button, large display digital transponders. The GTX 335 brings 1090 MHz output, which enables your aircraft to operate at any altitude, in any airspace anywhere around the globe. It combines a Mode S Extended Squitter (ES) transponder and optional WAAS/GPS position source in a single unit. Its useful display features include flight time, count-up and countdown timers, plus the current pressure altitude readout.

The best part? You’ll pay just $3,500 for a box that is well worth every penny. You’ll get the GTX 335 with GPS transponder and the GA 35 WAAS antenna. Because it can fit in your current rack, the installation costs will be reasonably low.

It’s got WAAS Inside

If you’re willing to go with a non-Garmin box, consider Appareo’s Stratus ESG. The Stratus ESG is just $3,000 and matches the capabilities of the Garmin 335GTX , plus it solves the 2020 compliance issue.  But wait, there’s more. The Stratus ESGi adds ADS-B IN capability by bolting a Stratus 2i to the back of the ESGi. What’s a Stratus 2i? We all know what a Stratus 2S is and many of us own and love them. The Stratus 2i is only available in this package.  It was designed to stay plugged into the transponder (tucked behind the panel), benefiting from external antenna signals and aircraft power. If you already own a portable Stratus 2S receiver, there’s an interface kit available to connect your receiver with the Stratus ESG transponder.

If you’re willing to gamble, here’s a deal for you. uAvionix has a low cost ADSB-Out solution in the works. It’s called the SkyBeacon and it’s currently only for Experimental. However, the owners have assured me that it will be ready for Certified Aircraft in 2018. Their first priority is to roll out certification for the most popular aircraft, like the Cessna 172.

Eventually, uAvionix plans to get to the Mooney. SkyBeacon uses the existing mounting location, breaker, and wiring. No airframe modifications or additional antennas are required. It’s designed to mount in minutes and uAvionix is hoping that the certified model will cost around $1,500.

Do You Need to Call Flight Service?

To Be Compliant with FAR 91.103, are Pilots Required to Call Flight Service?

More and more pilots are using Electronic Flight Bags (“EFBs”), such as ForeFlight, WingX, Garmin Pilot and FlyQ. That means that fewer and fewer pilots are calling Flight Service for a phone briefing.  Do you know if pilots are required to call Flight Service to be compliant with FAR 91.103?

2015 Case

In 2015, a pilot obtained a briefing using ForeFlight, but unfortunately did not set up DUATS in ForeFlight, so a record of the briefing was not emailed to him.  In that briefing, ForeFlight depicted two Vice Presidential TFRs on its screen (which the pilot avoided). A third Vice Presidential TFR was not depicted on ForeFlight, and the pilot violated that TFR.

  • 91.103

In addition to citing the pilot for flying through the TFR, the FAA also cited the pilot for failure to obtain a proper pre-flight briefing. That’s because, according to §91.103, when it comes to Preflight Action, “Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. This information must include—

  • For a flight under IFR or a flight not in the vicinity of an airport, weather reports and forecasts, fuel requirements, alternatives available if the planned flight cannot be completed, and any known traffic delays of which the pilot in command has been advised by ATC.

 The Affirmative Defense of “Reasonable Reliance”

The FAA had routinely taken the position that, if a pilot got a briefing from Flight Service, and if Flight Service had failed to brief the pilot about a particular TFR, then the FAA would not pursue an enforcement action for violating that TFR.  This doctrine is known as the affirmative defense of “reasonable reliance”.   In this case, the FAA refused to dismiss the action on the defense of reasonable reliance since the pilot got his briefing from ForeFlight instead of Flight Service.  Ironically, the FAA stopped short of calling ForeFlight “unofficial” or “unreliable”.

The case went to court in 2015 and the FAA settled its  enforcement case against the pilot, wherein he was required to accomplish a few hours of remedial training.  No violation went on his record.

After the ruling, there were more questions, so the pilot’s attorney, Scott Williams, a California-based panel attorney for AOPA’s Pilot Protection Services, submitted a request for an Opinion Letter from the FAA’s Office of Chief Counsel as to 91.103.  Mr. Williams’ letter specifically asked three questions:

  1. Is a preflight briefing in violation of FAR 91.103 if it did not include a phone call to Flight Service, 1-800-WX-BRIEF?
  2. If a pilot obtains a preflight briefing from the FAA’s [TFR] website, it contains a disclaimer at the bottom of the page: “For the Latest Information Call Your Local Flight Service Station at 1-800-WX-BRIEF”. Is that disclaimer advisory or regulatory?
  3. Does the FAA consider a briefing using only an electronic flight bag to be in violation of 91.103?

It took the FAA 11 months to come up with an answer, but they finally responded with the following:

  1.  “A PIC’s failure to contact LMFS prior to a flight would not be a per se violation of FAR 91.103”
  2. “The statement at the bottom of the FAA’s TFR website (to call your local FSS) is advisory
  3. “A PIC’s reliance on only an EFB would not be a per se violation of FAR 91.103”

Should Pilots Still Call Flight Service?

Pilots should always obtain a weather and airspace briefing from a reliable source.  Most EFBs are fine, but merely looking at a tablet or iPad isn’t good enough.  If your EFB briefing missed a TFR and you managed to fly right through it, don’t expect the FAA to believe that you saw what wasn’t there.

To be safe, pilots should use EFBs that have a feature that will email you a copy of the full briefing.  Keep those emails for at least 6 months.  If that doesn’t work for you, make the phone call to Flight Service, which puts your briefing on the record.

Is Your Aircraft Ready to Fly

You are directly responsible for, and are the final authority as to the operation of your Aircraft. There’s a lot to consider, so here goes:

(FAR 91.413) The PIC must make sure that his/her aircraft is airworthy. That includes checking the following:

Type Interval Per
AD Inspections Per the AD. (Expires the last day of the 12th month) 39.7
Annual Inspection 12 Months 91.409
100 Hour Inspection* Every 100 hours 91.409
Transponder 24 Months. (Expires the last day of the 24th month) 91.413
Static System, if flying IFR 24 Months. (Expires the last day of the 24th month) 91.411
ELT Operational 12 Months 91.207
ELT Battery** Per Battery or 1 hour of use 91.207
GPS Data Base IFR  
VOR IFR, every 30 days 91.171

*A 100 hour inspection is required if:

  • The aircraft is carrying people or property for compensation – or – a person is giving flight instruction and providing the aircraft
  • If you forget and have the aircraft inspection at 110 hours, the next 100 hour inspection is due 100 hours from when it was originally due. (You can’t roll it forward like an Annual Inspection due date).


An ELT must be attached to the airplane and the ELT batteries must be checked annually for corrosion.

Batteries must be replaced:

  • If the transmitter has been in use for more than 1 cumulative hour, or
  • When 50% of their useful life has expired. If they are rechargeable batteries, when 50% of their charge life has expired.

In plain English, all of the batteries must have the same expiration date and they must be replaced upon reaching 50% of their useful life, based on the expiration date on each battery cell.

Required Equipment, VFR DAY (A TOMATO FLAMES)

  • AIRSPEED Indicator.
  • TACHOMETER, (for each engine).
  • OIL PRESSURE gauge, (for each engine using a pressure system).
  • MANIFOLD PRESSURE gauge for each altitude engine. That’s a turbocharged reciprocating engine. Its manifold pressure is boosted and therefore, you must be able to monitor that pressure).
  • TEMP gauge for each liquid cooled engine.
  •   OIL TEMP gauge for each air cooled engine.
  •   FUEL gauge for each tank.
  •   LANDING GEAR POSITION indicator, (if the aircraft has retractable gear).
  •   ANTI-COLLISION LIGHT system, if the aircraft was certified after March 11, 1996. (In the event of an Anti-collision light failure, you may continue to a location where repairs or replacement can be made).
  •  ELT (FAR 91.207).
  •  SEAT BELTS. If the aircraft was certified after July, 1978, you’ll also need Shoulder Straps.

Additional Equipment Required for VFR NIGHT (FLAPS)

  • FUSES; 3 of each kind required, and accessible in flight. You only need fuses if your aircraft is equipped with them. For example, if your airplane has circuit breakers, there’s no need to have fuses.
  • LANDING LIGHT, but only if you are flying for hire.
  • ANTI-COLLISION LIGHT SYSTEM, if certified after August 11, 1971.
    • In the event of failure, you may continue to a location where repairs or replacement can be made.
  • POSITION LIGHTS, on from sunset to sunrise. (Ref. FAR 91.209).
  • SOURCE OF ELECTRICAL POWER (alternator or generator).

Required Equipment for an IFR Flight, (In addition to the equipment required for VFR):   (FAR 91.205)


  • DIRECTIONAL GYRO (DG) or equivalent.
  • RATE OF TURN indicator or an additional attitude indicator
  • GENERATOR or Alternator with adequate capacity.
  • SKID / SLIP Indicator
  • CLOCK installed in the aircraft, displaying hours, minutes and seconds.
  • RADIOS & NAV. Two-way radios and NAV equipment appropriate to the ground facilities to be used.

 You can take off with inoperative instruments or equipment that are not required by FAR 91, as long as the “bad” instrument or equipment is removed or placarded “INOPERATIVE”, and a pilot or mechanic determines that the loss of that instrument or equipment is not a hazard. The bad instrument/component must be unpowered.

Minimum Equipment List (MEL) (FAR 91.213)

Your aircraft MEL can be authorized by the airworthiness certificate holder to allow a takeoff with inoperative instruments or equipment. It can never take away from the equipment required for VFR day, VFR night, or IFR (day or night).

  • The MEL must be approved by the FAA.
  • The MEL and the FAA’s letter of approval must be carried in the aircraft.

 Required Documents in the Aircraft (FAR 91.203, 91.9)

  • A irworthiness certificate.
  • R egistration certificate.
  • R adio license, (SOME commercial operations & SOMETIMES, if you are leaving the USA or communicating with a foreign controller). NOTE: It is not enforced  in Mexico, they never mention a “Radio License”.
  • O perating limitations (The Owner’s Manual).
  • W eight and balance data.

A Post Maintenance Test Flight

How many times have you had your aircraft in the shop for some repairs or even its annual inspection, and then you just taxied it back to your hangar; never flying it until your next trip? I hope you’ll think about a post maintenance test flight next time your baby has some work done on it. At the very least, you’ll need to have a post maintenance test flight (without passengers) whenever your aircraft has been maintained, rebuilt, or altered in a manner that may have appreciably changed its flight characteristics or substantially affected its operation in flight.

Perhaps your mechanic may have counseled you to make such a test flight, or maybe not. If not, that’s because the FARs don’t require your mechanic to offer such counseling. The FAA looks to the owner to make that call.

Certain kinds of maintenance, such as horsepower increases, speed mods, etc., require a post maintenance test flight. That’s because these alterations are intended to appreciably change the flight characteristics of an aircraft, or substantially affect its operation in flight.

If you have an engine teardown or prop overhaul, do you need to test fly your aircraft? Absolutely and for good reason! There are many cases where a post engine teardown or a post engine overhaul flight has resulted in serious engine problems. In addition, the first flight after maintenance is by far the most likely time for an equipment failure that could affect flight safety.

To be safe, a test flight in day VFR conditions should be flown every time an aircraft is returned to service after maintenance. Fly this flight as if you were a test pilot, in a safe environment close to an airport, just in case something goes “south”.

A Mooney owner flew his aircraft to Nassau and while there, he had a prop strike. You know what that means, don’t you? That’s right, the Mooney went into the shop in Nassau and the insurance company issued a $25,000 check to the shop to cover the engine teardown, prop replacement and minor airframe repairs.

Now that the shop had their money, they were in no hurry to fix the airplane, so things dragged on and on – for a full year. Finally, they  shipped the engine to Florida for the teardown, ordered a replacement prop, performed some airframe repairs, reinstalled the engine, and installed the prop.

When the owner finally received word that his Mooney was ready, you can imagine his excitement. He flew commercially to the Bahamas, jumped into his Mooney and took off for the 160nm flight to Ft Lauderdale.

Just a few minutes after takeoff, the fuel pressure had dropped far below normal, the engine was unable to give more than 50% power, the prop pitch was uncontrollable, and the landing gear would not fully retract.









I am not sure what the owner was thinking, but instead of returning to Nassau, the pilot continued his flight over the Atlantic Ocean and managed to land at Ft Lauderdale. Wow! Just wow! If it had been me, the pucker factor would have been so intense that doctors would have needed to surgically remove the seat cushion from my rear end.

The Nassau maintenance was so bad that the Mooney remained in the Ft Lauderdale maintenance facility for the better part of another year. During that time, the shop performed extensive repairs to the airframe, tore the engine down – again, replaced the prop governor, carburetor, fuel pump, and fuel selector valve.

Next time you have maintenance performed on your aircraft, don’t argue about a test flight  . . Just do it!!

Signs your engine is going to fail


Low Oil Pressure

If you notice dropping oil pressure, you might have a broken or cracked oil line. Low oil pressure is usually accompanied by high oil temperature. An oil pressure indication below 10 psi, means you’re about to experience engine failure. Get that puppy on the ground ASAP.

High Oil Temperature

High oil temperature usually occurs when there’s not enough oil inside the engine. There might be a trace of oil remaining and that small amount circulates quickly throughout the engine, but fails to keep things cool and lubricated.

High oil temperature is usually accompanied by a drop in oil pressure. If the oil pressure remains normal, you probably have a faulty oil temperature gauge. Land ASAP.

Dropping Fuel Flow

If you notice a drop in fuel flow, you might have a failing fuel pump, some sort of valve, or leaking fuel line. Most commonly, we turn on the boost fuel pump. If that doesn’t work and fuel flow continues to decrease, your engine will eventually quit. Land ASAP.

Fuel Starvation

Improper fuel management causes far too many GA accidents. According to AOPA Air Safety Institute, pilots are forced to land nearly two times per week, mostly because they didn’t use good judgement when planning. In New Zealand, the pilots are a slightly safer, averaging a little over one incident per week. If you’re running off of a tank that’s nearly empty, you’re putting yourself in a bad spot and you’re likely to make the local news. At the very least, you’ll scare your passenger(s) and they may never fly with you again!

 Engine Roughness

There’s a variety of reasons an engine might run rough. A failed magneto, damaged components, carburetor ice, primary engine induction air system blockage, and improper mixture management are some of the most common reasons. Start looking for the cause right away, and if you can’t solve it, plan to get on the ground before things get worse. Land ASAP

Drop In RPM Or Manifold Pressure

Carbureted Engine: A drop in RPM or Manifold Pressure could be a sign that your engine has carburetor ice. If you don’t correct the problem with carburetor heat, more ice could build up and cut off the fuel/air mixture required for your engine to run.

Turbocharged Engine: A loss of manifold pressure could be a result of a Primary Engine Induction Air System Blockage – icing. The Automatic Alternate engine induction air system should open automatically. (ALT AIR annunciator should illuminate). If it doesn’t open automatically, manually pull the Alternate Air knob.

Rising Manifold Pressure

This could be a sign that your engine is about to fail, or already has started to. As the engine fails, air pressure inside the engine will begin to return to ambient air pressure. For instance, if you’re flying with 22 inches of manifold pressure and experience an engine failure on a standard day at sea level, manifold pressure in that engine will rise to approximately 29.92 inches. Land ASAP

Visible Leaks, Flames, Or Smoke

Do you notice fuel or oil steaming down the cowling, wings, or fuselage? Even worse, do you see flames or smoke coming from the cowling of your engine? These are some of the most dangerous signs of an oncoming engine failure. Land ASAP

 Catastrophic Failures

In extreme cases, parts have been known to rip through the cowling and fly away. In rare cases, entire pistons have ripped free of their connections, puncturing the cowling and causing the engine to vibrate to the point of destruction. Land ASAP

 The ABCs of an Emergency Landing

 A = Airspeed

Maintain the aircraft’s best glide speed. Maintaining this speed ensures that you’ll maximize your range so that you have more distance and time to set yourself up for a nice landing and complete the appropriate checklist.

B = Best Place to Land

If you’re out in the middle of nowhere, it’s not usually too hard to find a field to land in. It can be challenging to find a decent place to land if you’re over a congested area, though. You’ll want to find a place quickly either way, but there are a few things to consider before you rush to a decision.

Choose a landing area away from people or buildings. Fields are good options, but exercise caution as there are often times large ditches, irrigation trenches and power lines surrounding them. Once you find a place to land, try to set up a normal traffic pattern for your approach, remembering to land into the wind when possible.

C = Checklist

Check your AIRCRAFT’S OPERATING HANDBOOK for your specific procedures

After you establish best-glide speed and are headed toward your landing spot, you should try to re-establish power.

  • Switch to another Fuel Tank
  • Cycle the Magnetos
  • Turn the Boost Pump ON

If you can’t get the engine to develop power, you should begin the emergency landing checklist so you can have a fighting chance at a survivable landing.

  • Seat belts – ON
  • Shoulder harnesses, if equipped – ON
  • Door – UNLATCHED
  • Fuel selector – OFF
  • Mixture – IDLE CUTOFF
  • Mags – OFF
  • Flaps – AS DESIRED

Uncontrolled Airports

There are over 20,000 airports in the United States, but only about 500 have a control tower. Think of it.  97% of the U S airports depend on smart, courteous pilots. Many of those uncontrolled airports are sleepy, but some are beehives of activity.

In addition, it is not unusual for several uncontrolled airports to  share the same frequency. So, to make sure other pilots understand where you are, AIM 4-1-9 suggests that pilots state the airport name at the beginning and at the end of their transmission. For example, “Eloy traffic, Mooney 7KW turning right downwind Runway 20, Eloy.”

What You Shouldn’t Do

According to AIM 4-1-9, transmitting, “Traffic in the area, please advise”, is inappropriate and just plain stupid. Well, AIM didn’t quite word it like that, but you get the idea. So what should you do? If you want to know what runway the pilots are using, you should monitor the Common Taffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF). If the pilots are starting and ending their transmission with the name of the airport, then you’ll get the idea.

The FAA’s Role

The FAA doesn’t regulate traffic pattern entry techniques, but they do insist that all turns at non-towered airports should be made to the left, unless of course, right turns are indicated, like Show Low’s runways 3 and 24.

Entry on the 45 to the downwind leg is considered a standard approach from the downwind side of the traffic pattern., but it’s not mandated.

If you are entering from the Downwind Side, enter the pattern at 45 degrees from the downwind heading at pattern altitude.

If You are Entering from the Upwind Side

You should first fly midfield over the airport at a minimum of 500 feet above the pattern altitude.

As you fly over the airport, pay special attention to any traffic in the airport pattern. Once clear of the pattern, you can begin your descent to pattern altitude, turn back towards the airport and enter the traffic pattern on the downwind leg at the 45 degree entry point.












Are Straight-In Approaches Legal?

In 1978, I flew for the State of Utah’s Division of Aeronautics. We flew a Baron and a King Air, so we considered ourselves bigger and badder than anything that might be in the pattern. Using our superior reasoning, we felt that if we wanted to fly a straight in approach, we would just do it, and if the local guys didn’t like it, that was just too bad. Most of the airports were a bit sleepy, so a straight-in approach didn’t bother anyone. Provo (KPVU) was the exception. It had two flight schools that kept the pattern pretty busy. It really should have had a control tower in those days, but the FAA didn’t see it that way. If we were flying to Provo (KPVU), we were not welcome because of our attitude.

We would make the obligatory radio calls on Provo’s Unicom frequency, announcing that we were on a ten mile final for landing. Hearing our voices made the Provo pilots bristle and I swear I heard a few guns cock. The Provo pilots would chastise us on the frequency, but we didn’t care. Hey, we were going to do what we were going to do. Besides, that traffic entry stuff is too hard and we’re much too important.

Straight-in approaches are perfectly legal, but only if they don’t interfere with other aircraft in the pattern.

If you want to know if a straight-in is safe, you should make your decision from a courteous and common sense angle. If there is little to no traffic, then it probably will pass the safe and courteous test. By all means have at it. Just  broadcast your intentions well ahead of time and coordinate your entry with the other traffic in the pattern.

 Pattern Radio Calls

To help avoid a conflict, announce your position just prior to beginning the turn from one pattern leg to another. Because of the “wing flash”, it is much easier to locate an aircraft in a turn.

Crosswind Turns

Unless noise abatement procedures dictate otherwise, you should delay your crosswind turn until you have reached the departure end of the runway and you’re within 300 feet of the pattern altitude (AIM 4-3-3). Why? This prevents departing aircraft from climbing into the downwind traffic that may be flying at pattern altitude.


After takeoff, climb on the extended runway centerline beyond the departure end of the runway up to pattern altitude. At this point, you can continue straight ahead or make a 45-degree turn to the left (see Figure 8), or to the right if the airport has a right-hand pattern.
If you will be departing against the flow of the pattern, wait until you are at least at pattern altitude plus 500 feet before making a turn, and be sure to advise on the CTAF “Westco traffic, Arrow Four-Seven Romeo, departing the pattern Runway One-Eight, right turn westbound, Westco.”

You’ve lost your engine. Now what?

You’ve lost your Engine

First, AVIATE. Establish your best glide speed.


Try to let ATC know you’re having an emergency. First, squawk 7700. If you’re in radar contact, that will light up ATC’s radar scopes. At that point, they’ll start tracking you and getting emergency response ready.

Also, you want to talk to ATC if you can. So what frequency should you use?

There are a couple you can start with. If you don’t know what Center or Flight service frequencies are available where you are, start with a radio call on the universal emergency guard frequency of 121.5. 121.5 is meant for aircraft in distress, and most ATC facilities monitor the frequency.

If you’re within range of ATC, they’ll hopefully hear you. Many airline and corporate jets monitor guard frequency as well, so if you can’t reach ATC, there’s a good chance you can reach a jet flying above you, and they can relay information back and forth to ATC.

And if none of that works, you can always try the universal Flight Service frequency of 122.2.

 Selecting A Landing Site: Airport

Once you have established your best glide indicated airspeed, you need to find a place to land.

You really have two choices, and the first choice of the two is to land at an airport if you can. The last choice of the two is to land somewhere else.

If have GPS on board, whether it’s panel mounted or an EFB like ForeFlight, the “Nearest Airport” function gives you a quick list of nearby airports.

Once you pick an airport and go “direct to” it, you’ll know your distance to the runway. The next question is: can you get there? That’s where some quick mental math comes in.

Mooneys have a great wing and typically glide about 2 nautical miles per thousand feet. So, if you’re 4,000 feet above the ground, you’ll be able to glide 8 nautical miles before touching the ground.

You should always look at your POH maximum glide chart to make sure of your glide ratio

If you have ForeFlight’s new “Glide Advisor” feature, that can tell you even faster what you’re within gliding distance of.

When you set up “Glide Advisor in ForeFlight, bear in mind that Mooneys are typically 11 to 1.


Get one, please.

Approaching The Airport

As you get close to the airport, you need to plan your landing, and that’s going to start by choosing a runway. There are a few ways you can do it. If you know the ASOS frequency, you can dial it in and pick up the winds. And if you’re in a position where you’re circling over the airport at altitude, you can look at the wind sock.

If you’re talking with ATC, they can be a great help.

Getting Ready For a Runway Touchdown

As you approach the airport, if you have enough altitude, you want to circle down over top of the airport. That keeps you close to the runway, and lets you set up for a normal landing.

At about 1,000′ AGL, you want to enter downwind for the runway, and you want to keep your pattern tight, because you only have one shot to make the runway.

You also need to pick an aiming point for touchdown, so you know when to turn your base leg.

 A good way to pick an aiming point is to visually split the runway into thirds, and aim for the point where the first and second thirds meet. That will help you make sure you don’t end up short of the runway, but that you still have plenty of room to stop.

As you’re abeam your aiming point, you’ll turn base. At this point, you also want to start flying you normal pattern speeds. As long as the runway is assured, you’ll add partial flaps as well.

As you turn final, you want to figure out how you’re looking for a glide path to the runway. Keep in mind that you’ll be higher than a normal 3-degree glide path, but you’re also descending much faster because you don’t have power.

At this point, you want to aim for your touchdown point, one-third down the runway.

If the point is moving down in the windshield, it means you’re high, and it’s probably time to add more flaps or slip to lose altitude. But you want to keep in mind that you need to be absolutely sure you’ll make the runway before you add flaps.

And if your aim point is moving up in the windshield, it means you’re getting low on glide path, and you shouldn’t add any more flaps until you’re sure you’ll make the runway.

As you cross the threshold, you need to focus your attention on a safe touchdown. You’re still aiming for the touchdown point, but if you’re high and fast, it’s better to land a few hundred feet beyond the touchdown point, than it is to force the airplane on the landing spot.

 Selecting A Landing Site: Off Airport

If you can’t glide to an airport, you need to pick the next best thing. And most of the time, you have quite a few options.

When you’re preparing for a power-off landing, there are two things you need to consider to make your landing survivable.

First, you need to keep the cockpit and cabin as intact as possible by using dispensable parts of the plane, like the wings, landing gear and bottom of the fuselage to slow you down during landing.

And second, you need to prevent your body from hitting the inside of the cockpit during touchdown, by making sure your seat belt is tight.

Most GA airplanes are designed to protect you at up to 9 Gs of forward acceleration.

Look at these examples: if you’re flying at 50 MPH, the required stopping distance at a 9 G deceleration is about 9.4 feet.

And if you’re flying at 100 MPH, the required stopping distance at a 9 G deceleration is about 37.6 feet.

Think about that for a minute: 37 feet isn’t a lot of required stopping distance in a survivable crash. In fact, it’s just a little bit longer than the fuselage length of your plane.


Paper Charts – Who Needs ’em?

by Jim Price

Everywhere we go, we seem to be surrounded by information technology. It’s staggering to think that in your little iPhone/SmartPhone, there’s more computing power than that which was available when NASA sent Neil Armstrong to the moon. It seems that every six months, the aviation apps you can load on your iPad or Tablet, become more powerful, with incredible features that boggle the mind.  All this causes one to wonder, “How did I ever aviate back in the old days”?

Yet, many pilots remain skeptical, and some are downright adamant, contending that paper charts and plates are much safer than those powered by an iPad/Tablet.

When I was an airline pilot, in addition to my suitcase, I carried a flight bag. This monster contained all the US IFR charts, approach plates, SIDs and STARs that I could ever need when flying to the airports that we served, plus all the approved alternates. Before the days of the Rollaboard, after three or four days of multiple airports and airplanes, my arms felt as if they reached the ground. Boy, I am so jealous of today’s pilots, who simply travel with a suitcase and an iPad,  loaded with all they need. Long live the Electronic Flight Bag (EFB).

With an EFB, if you pay attention to your app’s promptings, there should be no doubt that you have the most up to date charts. You can fly across several states with confidence, knowing that you have everything you need for your cross country. Plus, it’s all available with the click of a button.

You can be super flexible, too. Let’s say that you’re flying from the L A Basin to Boise, ID. If , during the flight planning, you see that weather will force you into Utah, or if you need an alternate in Utah, with just the click of a button and in a matter of a few minutes, you’ll be downloading all of the charts needed to fly through Utah.

If you’re flying with paper, you will have enroute charts, approach charts, SID and STAR charts. That’s a lot of paper to manage. And, if you don’t have a chart handy, you’ll be twisting yourself around, digging through your flight bag in the back seat.

With electronic charts, everything is contained in one app, and with a few clicks, you’re switching between enroute charts and approach charts, and you’re even ready for that approach change that ATC might give you.


The downside of electronic charts is the massive amount of information you have in front of you. If you aren’t able to navigate your app efficiently, you could be doing yourself more harm than good.

If you’re going to fly paperless, spend some time on the ground becoming familiar with your app; learning how to quickly perform all the tasks you need to do in flight.

ForeFlight and Sporty’s offer training courses. ForeFlight’s is free and Sporty’s will cost a bit. Your local FAASTeam might, throughout the year, sponsor FREE iPad workshops with great hands on training. The Phoenix area FAASTeam offers these, but only when the temperatures are below 90.

Of course, you just need to explore you app and discover its features.

What If Your Battery Runs Out?

Apple claims that the iPad has a 10 hour battery. But, when you’re using the GPS location services, the battery life is more like 4 to 6 hours. The iPad mini has more battery life.

If your battery dies, are you out of luck? Not if you’re prepared with backup battery power. You can get a Jackery Giant Plus for only $23 (Amazon). It stores enough power to charge an iPad battery from 0% to 100%. The more powerful Mophie Powerstation costs around $100. You can also power your iPad with a Dual USB charger that plugs into your cigarette lighter. It works with 12 and 24 Volt systems and each USB port supplies 2.4 amps.

If you’ve got one or more backups in the cockpit, along with a charging cable, your chances of running out of power in-flight are zero.

What If You Drop your iPad and Break Your Screen?

I’ll admit, that wouldn’t be good, but if you’re carrying a iPhone/Smart phone in your pocket, all is not lost. Using your smartphone for your backup charts might not be ideal, but it works just fine.

Another thing you should be prepared for is a charging cable failure. Cables are typically the weakest link for any electronic flight kit, and if you don’t have a spare, you could be out of luck. Fortunately, you can get extras for less than $10.

I Heard that an iPad Exploded While Using it Above 10,000 Feet MSL

Apple has established a maximum altitude for the iPad, and yes, it’s 10,000 feet. However, it won’t explode if you fly higher. Because the air is less dense above 10,000 feet, the iPad becomes more susceptible to overheating, especially when it’s exposed to direct sunlight.

What if Your iPad Overheats?

The iPad has a maximum operating temperature of 95oF. When it gets too hot, it will shut down to protect the internal battery. In the summer, you should keep our iPad away from direct sunlight and keep it bathed in cool air. If your iPad overheats, remove it from the sunlight and put some cool air on it. It will cool down in a matter of minutes and automatically restore normal operations.

Paper Charts Don’t Crash

Yup, you’ve got me there. But wait a minute. If you know how to restart your electronic app, it’s not that much of a problem.

Will a TFR Draw Itself on a Paper Chart?

Nope! But if you have an iPad equipped with an aviation app like ForeFlight, Garmin Pilot, WingX or FlyQ, you’re in luck. TFRs, NEXRAD weather, SIGMETs, AIRMETs and much more, can be displayed on your iPad. That is, if you have an ADS-B receiver like a Stratus, Garmin GDL-39, etc., These receivers can turn your electronic chart into a living, constantly updated chart. Try that with a paper chart.

Are Your Paper Charts Updated?

Who doesn’t love chart revisions? Updates come every 56 days, with interim updates at the mid-point of that cycle. That’s not my idea of fun. When I flew with paper, I knew that chart updates were one of the worst realities of flying. At any time, an airline check pilot or the FAA, could check my charts. I was always up to date, but I know others that failed. Some guys hated it so much, that they paid company secretaries to update their Jeppesen charts.

What If You Need To Fly Somewhere and You don’t Have the Necessary Charts?

Good luck tracking them down. You might be able to order them, and have them shipped. Hopefully, they’ll arrive in time for your flight.

What’s Your Best Option?

While paper is still an option, it’s not nearly as practical and reliable as electronic charts, especially when you’re flying long distances.

Instant chart revisions, access to the entire US airspace system, and easy backup plans are just a few reasons why electronic charts win – hands down.

Yes, I carry some “just in case” paper charts, but I keep them in my flight bag in the back seat. I’ve been using an EFB for many years and so far, I’ve never needed the paper.