19 Things that can Cause an Accident

  1. Not getting a full weather brief before every flight
  2. Rushing through a pre-flight inspection
  3. Doing an incomplete run up or skipping it entirely
  4. Multi-tasking while taxiing. (Entering the flight plan in the GPS can wait)
  5. Not using a checklist on each flight
  6. Not filing a VFR flight plan
  7. Not utilizing flight following
  8. Misuse of Special VFR
  9. Not using enough rudder (especially during a go-around)
  10. Not having a taxi diagram out while taxiing. (Wandering can be costly and dangerous)
  11. Planning an IFR alternative that’s too close to the destination airport. (It’s the same weather pattern)
  12. Not understanding installed technology. (What’s this button do?)
  13. Dialing the wrong frequency. (This is especially easy to do with the numbers after the “point”)
  14. Not asking for help earlier, before it’s too late. (Fear of declaring an emergency has caused lots of problems)
  15. Not briefing a departure and possible emergencies before departure. (Think about what you’ll do if you have a fire or lose an engine after takeoff)
  16. Not checking aircraft performance / density altitude. (Can you take off safely? Do you have a reject spot?)
  17. Allowing distractions in the cockpit
  18. Mismanaging single pilot resources. (Passengers and ATC can be a great help)
  19. Not monitoring instruments.

Reflect on and ponder these nineteen points. Do any of these seem familiar to you; something you are constantly or occasionally doing? Is there something that you could do to change your flight habits?


ADS-B Install Rebate

The ADS-B rebate program became alive on Sept 19. Two weeks later, more than 2,300 aircraft owners applied for a $500 rebate . Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Out (ADS-B Out) systems will be required in aircraft on Jan. 1, 2020. The FAA plans to run the rebate program for a year or until 20,000 rebates have been claimed.

Some pilots who applied for the rebate program have misunderstood a few things.


To qualify for a rebate, you need to have a US registered fixed wing, single engine piston aircraft . Sorry, but if you’re already ADS-B Out equipped, you don’t qualify for the $500 rebate.

The steps seem easy, but so far, there’s been some confusion.

Before you go too far with this, make sure your aircraft registration includes your correct mailing address. (That’s where the check for $500 will be delivered).

You can do that at http://registry.faa.gov/aircraftinquiry/




Get an exact install date from the shop.

If it’s more than 90 days away, you cannot reserve your rebate.

If the proposed install date is within 90 days, go to https://www.faa.gov/nextgen/equipadsb/rebate/ and proceed with step #2.


This is where you’ll get the all important  Rebate Reservation Code.

You’ll need to install the ADS-B equipment within 90 days of the Rebate Reservation. (SEE NOTE BELOW)


After it’s installed, you have 60 days to fly and validate the installation. This will demonstrate to the FAA that it was done correctly.

NOTE: Pilots can indicate a reservation date at the system’s maximum allowable 90 days out. If the installation ends up taking place after that date, the only effect will be that the aircraft owner will have less than 60 days to fly and validate the installation. Pilots should keep track of the combined total time limit of 150 days, as exceeding it may require reapplying for a reservation.


The Public ADS-B Performance Report (PAPR) that validates the required flight testing, has been for some, a very confusing element. In some instances, pilots received a PAPR advising “no flight information available.” In many of those cases, the pilot had requested the PAPR immediately after flying. Pilots should wait a minimum of one hour to request the PAPR, to ensure that the flight information is available within the database. Also derived from the PAPR request is a General Aviation Incentive Requirements Status (GAIRS) report, which provides a summary of three testing parameters: aircraft registration, airspace detection, and ADS-B rule compliance. If all are satisfactory, the GAIRS report will include an incentive code required to complete the rebate process.

The Advisory Circular explains how the flight must be conducted. It’s at http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC_20-165B.pdf , specifically page 43.

Pilots who were unfamiliar with the details of the flight test requirements—including location, what maneuvers to conduct, and the flight test’s length—received PAPR and GAIRS reports with elements marked in red, indicating that the equipment failed to meet the requirements of at least one of those testing parameters. For an ADS-B validation flight to meet the FAA rebate requirements, it must be made in airspace where ADS-B Out will be required (in Class B or Class C airspace, or above 10,000 feet MSL), and not simply in airspace with ADS-B ground station coverage.

To further clarify testing requirements, the FAA notes that flying and maneuvering for 30 minutes within ADS-B ground station coverage alone does not meet the intent of the recommended maneuvering. The intent of performing various maneuvers for the full 30 minutes within specified rule airspace is to evaluate the overall system performance after installation. The performance parameters identified in the 2020 ADS-B rule are defined to ensure that an aircraft meets all performance requirements in various phases of flight, not just level flight within ADS-B coverage. The additional maneuvering requirements are needed to ensure that the aircraft is providing the correct indications to the ground infrastructure during all applicable phases of flight, and if within ADS-B coverage during surface operations.

Some confusion and resultant failures occurred because some pilots did not perform the rebate validation flight maneuvers in ADS-B rule airspace. The ADS-B Controlled Airspace Map indicates the location of rule airspace and provides a graphic detailing the various controlled airspace designations.


Note that ADS-B Class E airspace differs from the conventional Class E airspace. ADS-B Class E airspace begins at 10,000 feel MSL unless specifically noted in particular geographical areas such as the Gulf of Mexico and the exceptions noted for the rebate program in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.


The ADS-B rebate is considered taxable income, according to the FAA. Pilots can have other questions answered via the FAA’s rebate help email address.

Aircraft owners who are just now beginning to research the rebate program can view this FAA instructional video for details.